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Peter Kahn’s study of "whether a robotic entity is conceptualized as just a tool, or as some form of a technological being that can be held responsible for its actions" was published in the proceedings of the International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction.

The results suggest that as robots gain capabilities in language and social interactions, "it is likely that many people will hold a humanoid robot as partially accountable for harm that it causes." The researchers argue that as militaries transform from human to robotic warfare, the chain of command that controls robots and the moral accountability of robotic warriors should be factored into jurisprudence and the Laws of Armed Conflict for cases when the robots hurt humans. Kahn is also concerned about the morality of robotic warfare. "Using robotic warfare, such as drones, distances us from war, can numb us to human suffering, and make warfare more likely," he said.

Co-authors include Jolina H. Ruckert, Solace Shen, Heather E. Gary, and Aimee L. Reichert.
“Robots fighting wars could be blamed for mistakes on the battlefield,”